Energy-efficient MAC protocol in wireless sensor network

Recently, the applications of wireless sensor network (WSN) have shown interest in the development of vehicle health monitoring (VHM) systems. This can be used in monitoring of railway signaling systems and rail tracks. Energy efficiency is one of the important design considerations in WSN as the sensors are equipped with limited power batteries. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an energy-efficient WSN MAC protocol. An energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks using spatial correlation based medium access control protocol (spatial correlation based collaborative medium access control (CC-MAC)) is effective with AODV and DSR.

Problem

The major requirements of a wireless MAC protocol are:
» Energy Efficiency
» Scalability
» Latency
» Fairness
» Bandwidth Utilization.

Solutions

  • Contention-based protocols are scalable and adaptable to node density or traffic load variations.

  • Schedule-based protocols are collision free and hence, limit the wastage of energy due to collision.

  • Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is a schedule-based MAC protocol in which it separates the transmission channel into several time slots, and assigns a time slot for each node.

  • The energy efficient TDMA (E-TDMA) protocol minimizes energy consumption caused by idle listening.

  • The bit-map-assisted (BMA) protocol is a schedule-based protocol that attempts to reduce energy exhaustion due to collision and idle listening.

  • The energy-efficient bit-map-assisted (E-BMA) protocol exploits the piggybacking concept.

NS2 Solution

  • Sensor network is set up using the nodes configured with fixed initial energy, transmission power, reception power, routing agent, transport agent and application in the rectangular simulation area.

  • Simulation of this network is performed using NS2 by varying the mac protocol.

  • The performance of the network is evaluated from the simulation results in terms of total energy consumption, Transmission latency, number of packets generated, received ,dropped and data packet size.

Related Titles

  • G. M. Shafiullah, Salahuddin A. Azad, and A. B. M. Shawkat Ali, “Energy-Efficient Wireless MAC Protocols for Railway Monitoring Applications” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, VOL. 14, NO. 2, JUNE 2013