Security attacks in wireless sensor networks

The broadcasting nature, absence of infrastructure, and dynamic topology of wireless sensor network (WSN) makes it vulnerable to several security threats. Communication establishment in an open environment exposes sensor networks to WSN can be broadly classified into passive and active. A passive attack does not interrupt the protocol operation, but just listens to the communication medium to discover valuable information. In contrast, an active attack inserts or modifies the information in the network. Impersonation, Denial of Service, Disclosure attacks are the active attacks that can be easily launched in the WSN.
 In the impersonation attack, nodes join the network and send false routing information, or masquerade as some other genuine node. The black-hole attack is a kind of impersonation attack impersonation attack in which the adversary exploits the routing protocol to advertise itself as having the shortest path to the destination. The adversary drops all the packets it received from the source instead of forwarding. Wormhole attack is the advanced form of black hole attack in which the adversaries form a tunnel in the network between them and disrupt the routing process.
 The routing table overflow and the sleep deprivation attack are denial of service. In the routing table overflow attack, the adversary creates a route to the non-existing nodes to overwhelm the routing-protocol processing. The adversary attempts to consume the energy level of other nodes by adding the useless packets in the sleep deprivation attack. In the location disclosure attack, the adversaries reveal some valuable information regarding the physical location of nodes.

Solution in NS2

 
  • Attacks such as Blackhole attack, grayhole attack, wormhole attack, selfish behavior, Sybil attack can be modeled in ns2.

  • In Blackhole attack, attacker involving communication model is configured to drop the packet. Hence, data are dropped by the attacker.

  • In grayhole attack, attacker involving communication model is configured with adjusted interval to selectively forward the packet. Hence, reduced amount of data is forwarded by the attacker.

  • In wormhole attack, packet is tunneled between the link between two attackers. Attacker involving communication model is configured with adjusted interval to selectively forward the packet. Hence reduced amount of data is forwarded by the attacker.

  • In selfish behavior, attacker node can be modeled with sufficient energy. Even though attacker is having sufficient energy, it will not involve in packet forwarding while performing routing, or it will not accept the responsibility of leader while executing Intrusion Detection Service (IDS) or it will not cooperate in replica allocation.