Wireless networks massively play a part of human life while the vivid and emerging technology of Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) has attracted growing interest during the past years. This growing interest is undoubtedly attributed to novel applications enabled by small devices that can harvest the information from physical context and perform simple processes on the extracted data. The growing chances of WSNs in day-to-day life are just the beginning and the forwarding step to inventing a very highly sophisticated technology, in which the houses, cities, and even countries can be interconnected as a part of the Internet of Things (IoT) design .
As the predicted result, more than 10 billion devices with Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity are sold on the market at every year. This market penetration significantly escalates the recent research focus on the IoT . The IoT certainly innovates more technologies by making the devices to communicate the various kinds of information with one another. According to U.S.A Gartner Forecast, 6.4 billion connected things are expected to be in use worldwide in the year of 2016 excluding smartphones, computers, and tablets, which is 30 percent greater than the expectations in 2015. The 20.8 billion devices are expected to become smarter in the year of 2020. Furthermore, IHS Markit projects expect 30.7 billion IoT things for 2020 including all devices.
With all connected devices in the world, lives are likely to be transformed which makes the world smart and digital. On the other hand, the success of IoT strongly depends on the security features which provides reliability and efficient operations on a global scale. However, the rapid development and decentralized standardization of IoT creates the communication security complex . Figure 1 demonstrates the IoT environment. For further expansion of IoT technologies, the open standards of IoT such as identification, communication, and security standards are likely to be played as the key enablers. In this, the security standards require the ability to ensure security by uninterrupted security, authentication, integrity, and confidentiality. Therefore, security should be imposed on IoT through the development and operational lifecycle of IoT devices.
Figure 1: IoT Environment
Within the IoT environment, an object refers to the physical and virtual things that capable of giving services over the Internet such as rooms, spaces, fruits, chairs, suitcases, bags, clothes, and, animals or even a service and a process. The objects can be converted in a way that can be understood well by reacting with and to the environment in a meaningful and more advanced manner. Consequently, the smart monitoring and management can be attained via the utilization of networked embedded devices. With the tremendous potential and capabilities of IoT, there are many kinds of challenges. One of the crucial challenges for IoT is that when integrating the heterogeneous data created for a purpose except for integration, the objects differ remarkably regarding their technology, functionality, and application. Moreover, to attain a monitoring system and tracking mobility of any objects for future IoT services, the system significantly integrates the networking capabilities of a wireless local area network, a WSN, and smartphone devices. These scenarios assist in providing a way that supports anyone be able to monitor and understand an individual’s movement and behavior inside a building. In the upcoming years, the integration of objects into IoT becomes a significant evolution of WSNs, and the IoT is believed to bridge heterogeneous technologies by connecting physical things to support smart decision making.
With the fast development of IoT, there are a variety of applications which contribute to the quality of everyday life and the economy of the world . The IoT applications that mainly address the societal advancements and needs for enabling some challenging technologies such as nano-electronics and cyber-physical systems, economic, and technical issues. Several important IoT applications are described as follows.
The monitoring solutions are mainly based on the open platforms that utilize an intelligent sensor network to give information about the current state of the home. It enables the residents to automatically open their car garage when reaching home, control climate control systems, TVs, and other home appliances.
Tracking traffic jams through cellular phones of the users and quick deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) make the people and transportation more efficient. The IoT technologies enable tracking and sorting per-bag read rates for monitoring and managing passenger luggage in airline and airport operations as well as increasing security.
The IoT-driven and noninvasive monitoring exploited in clinical care continuously monitor the status of the hospitalized patients who require close attention. These technologies enhance the quality of care and eliminate the need for caregivers.
The IoT connects the factory to a new range of production application which is from factory to the smart grid. This method shares the production facility and allows more flexibility and agility within the production system.
The quick deployment of the IoT scheme enables ad hoc information gathering based on the locations of consumers. With IoT, a farmer may be able to supply the crops directly to the consumers. The IoT enables smart-farming with controlling things on the field irrespective of the direct monitoring of people. Also, the use of IoT technologies supports to trace the agricultural animals and its movements.
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