Privacy Preserving Routing

Preserving privacy of the users is crucial in a wireless environment compared to the wired environment, specifically in terms movement pattern of users using which an attacker can harm the users.

» Unlinkability and Unobservability Problem

Even though there exist numerous schemes in the privacy preserving data can be easily observed and linked. Privacy preserving routing should provide the following properties. Anonymity – protection node identity, Unlinkability – protecting the link between successive messages and Unobservability – protecting from observing any information (header, content) by the nodes in the network.


Unobservable Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol (USOR) achieves unlinkability and unobservability requirement for data. USOR protocol prevents the adversary from distinguishing the data packets from control packets and the valid receiver can interpret the data using symmetric decryption

Solution in NS2

  • Network with set of adversaries can be designed.

  • USOR can be implemented in ns2.

  • Packet Delivery Ratio and control overhead metrics can be calculated and compared with existing protocols to evaluate the performance of existing protocols.

» High Cost Problem

Anonymous routing protocols incur high computational cost for hop-by-hop encryption. Routing protocol should achieve anonymity in identity of source, destination and route.


Anonymous Location-based Efficient Routing proTocol (ALERT) provides high anonymity at low cost. ALERT protects the identity of the source and destination and route anonymity is achieved by selecting the each router randomly in a dynamically partitioned zone. ALERT is resilient to timing and intersection attack.

Solution in NS2

  • Network area is partitioned into zones based on the location of the nodes.

  • Relay node is selected randomly in each zone till the destination zone is reached.

  • The performance of the ALERT is compared with GPSR to analyze its efficiency.

Related Titles:

  • Zhiguo Wan, Kui Ren, and Ming Gu, “USOR: An Unobservable Secure On-Demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 11, NO. 5, MAY 2012

  • Haiying Shen*, Lianyu Zhao, “ALERT: An Anonymous Location-based Efficient Routing Protocol in MANETs” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING 2012