Research Area:  Machine Learning
One-fourths of the patients have medication-resistant seizures and require seizure detection and treatment continuously to cope with sudden seizures. Seizures can be detected by monitoring the brain and muscle activities, heart rate, oxygen level, artificial sounds, or visual signatures through EEG, EMG, ECG, motion, or audio/video recording on the human head and body. In this article, we first discuss recent advances in seizure sensing, signal processing, time- or frequency-domain analysis, and classification algorithms to detect and classify seizure stages. Then, we show a strong potential of applying recent advancements in non-invasive brain stimulation technology to treat seizures. In particular, we explain the fundamentals of brain stimulation approaches, including (1) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), (2) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), (3) transcranial focused ultrasound stimulation (tFUS), and how to use them to treat seizures. Through this review, we intend to provide a broad view of both recent seizure diagnoses and treatments. Such knowledge would help fresh and experienced researchers to capture the advancements in sensing, detection, classification, and treatment seizures. Last but not least, we provide potential research directions that would attract seizure researchers/engineers in the field.
Author(s) Name:  Taeho Kim, Phuc Nguyen, Nhat Pham, Nam Bui, Hoang Truong, Sangtae Ha and Tam Vu
Journal name:  Frontiers in Neurology
Publisher name:  Frontiers
Paper Link:   https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2020.00701/full