Machine learning constitutes a vital role in Artificial intelligence and deals with the ability of machines to learn from the massive amount of data using knowledge representation, processing, and storing. Recently, machine learning has received great unprecedented popularity with the development of several new areas. The previously established research areas have also gained new momentum in big data analysis. The tremendous growth in the quantity of digital data, affordable computing resources, and optimization algorithms has enabled machine learning techniques for the breakthrough of artificial intelligence. For instance, large quantities of medical data are analyzed for diagnosis and treatment. The machine learning techniques analyze the medical data and determine the patterns in the bio-signals. They drive advances in healthcare and medical research. The recent research on machine learning algorithms attempts to solve the following challenges, 1) Developing the machine learning algorithms that can computationally scale to Big data, 2) Designing algorithms that do not require large amounts of labeled data, 3) Designing a resource-efficient machine learning methods, and 4) developing a privacy preservation techniques for various applications.