Research Area:  Internet of Things
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of different interconnected objects that are capable to collect and exchange data without human interaction. IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is the common IoT routing protocol. One of the main drawbacks of the RPL protocol is lack of support of load balancing leads to unfair distribution of traffic load in the network which may decrease network efficiency. In this paper for load balancing, we proposed a new method called C-Balance based on cluster ranking to increase the network lifetime. In this method, two ranks are calculated for each node. The first rank is used to identify clusters and cluster heads and the second rank is used to select parents of each cluster head to forward packets towards the destination. To calculate these ranks, several metrics are used including Expected Transmission Count, hop count, residual energy and number of children. To investigate the performance of the proposed method, it has been simulated with Cooja simulator in the form of nodes with mobility and non-mobility scenarios plus using a random topology network with 20, 40 and 60 nodes experiments. The results are compared with OF0 and MRHOF standard objective functions as well as the QU-RPL method. The final results in both scenarios show that the proposed method in the field of energy consumption, network lifetime and load balancing has improved compared to the other methods. In terms of end-to-end delay, the proposed method has more delay compared to the standard objective functions and QU-RPL method. The calculation of the mean packet delivery ratio (PDR) of these four methods also shows that the proposed method has an acceptable performance. Final results indicate that on average, there is a 30–45% improvement in energy consumption, 15–23% reduction in average number of children and 22–48% improvement in network lifetime are obtained compared to the other methods. Finally, there is about 12% progress for PDR compared to the OF0.
Author(s) Name:  Seyed Ali Fatemifar, Reza Javidan
Journal name:  Telecommunication Systems
Publisher name:  Springer
Volume Information:  volume 77,2021