The IoT makes daily activities smart by intelligently connecting the physical and digital world through the internet. For that, the IoT comprises many low-powered tiny sensor devices and actuators. Albeit the IoT improves the quality of human life, it leads to life-critical threat issues during the presence of hackers.
Smart IoT applications create harmful scenarios when a malicious user hacks them. Hence, the IoT applications have also dealt with much sensitive information ranging from home to industry. The major IoT security requirements are authentication, integrity, authorization, availability, non-reputation, and confidentiality. The perception, network, and application layers are highly vulnerable to attack activities, and efficient defense schemes are crucial. The IoT authentication methods prevent network activity access from unauthorized users by introducing strong authentication certificates, keys, and hash functions.
Numerous authentication mechanisms are proposed in the literature to provide strong security against attackers. However, the authentication mechanisms face some challenges linking the number of control messages, scalability, device heterogeneity, and computation cost. An efficient authentication mechanism should be lightweight and have minimum cost without compromising the security and performance level of smart IoT applications.