Currently Geographic / Location based routing protocols are more frequently used than topology based routing protocol in highly dynamic mobile ad hoc network. The basic geographic routing protocol is carried out in an opportunistic manner to achieve QoS using backup nodes.
Neighbors of the source are identified
Distance from each neighbor to destination is calculated
Neighbor having least distance is selected as nexthop
Neighbors located within half of the range of nexthop are selected as backup nodes
Data transmission is carried out using selected nexthop and when the nexthop fails backup nodes continues the data transmission process
Nexthop follows from step i-iv and this process continues till destination is reached