Research Area:  Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of spatially distributed low power sensor nodes and gateways along with base station to monitor physical or environmental conditions. In cluster-based WSNs, the cluster head is treated as the gateway. The gateways perform the multiple activities, such as data gathering, aggregation, and transmission etc. The collected data is transmitted from gateways to the base station using routing information. Routing is a key challenge in WSNs design as gateways are constrained by energy, processing power, and memory. Moreover, heavily loaded gateways die in early stages and cause changes in network topology. It is necessary to conserve gateways energy for prolonging the WSNs lifetime. To address this problem, particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based routing is proposed in this paper. Also, a novel fitness function is designed by considering the number of relay nodes, the distance between the gateway to base station and relay load factor of the network. The proposed algorithm is validated under two different scenarios. The experimental results show that the proposed PSO-based routing algorithm prolonged WSNs lifetime when compared to other bio-inspired approaches.
Author(s) Name:  Damodar Reddy Edla, Mahesh Chowdary Kongara and Ramalingaswamy Cheruku
Journal name:  Wireless Personal Communications
Publisher name:  Springer
Volume Information:  volume 104, pages 73–89 (2019)
Paper Link:   https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11277-018-6009-6