Recently, technological breakthroughs have increased the IoT significance in various fields and enabled numerous application services. The IoT is constructed by heterogeneous IoT devices that vary in size, battery power, and computing capabilities. The intelligent IoT devices have sense, monitor, and transfer the information about a smart environment to the server to enable remote control operations.
The abundant data generation of heterogeneous devices in IoT poses numerous challenges that are diversity, scalability, energy requirements, bandwidth requirements, computational ability, development of low-cost sensing devices, internet availability, quality of service, and security. The major application areas of IoT are smart industries, smart healthcare, smart transportation systems, the education field, smart grids, smart surveillance systems, and smart agriculture, to name a few. In such fields, the IoT performance mainly depends on the availability of the internet. The user can remotely monitor and control the activities of an environment with the assistance of an IoT system.
Numerous works survey the network challenges and opportunities of IoT systems. Moreover, the IoT is further extended to the automated application world boundaries by effectively connecting the physical devices, systems, and services through various advanced technologies.