Research Area:  Internet of Things
The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a simple and lightweight machine-to-machine (M2M) protocol for constrained devices for use in lossy networks which offers a small memory capacity and limited processing. Designed and developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), it functions as an application layer protocol and benefits from reliable delivery and simple congestion control. It is implemented for request/response message exchanges over the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to support the Internet of Things (IoT). CoAP also provides a basic congestion control mechanism. In dealing with its own congestion, it relies on a fixed interval retransmission timeout (RTO) and binary exponential backoff (BEB). However, the default CoAP congestion control is considered to be unable to effectively perform group communication and observe resources, and it cannot handle rapid, frequent requests. This results in buffer overflow and packet loss. To overcome these problems, we proposed a new congestion control mechanism for CoAP Observe Group Communication, namely Congestion Control Random Early Detection (CoCo-RED), consisting of (1) determining and calculating an RTO timer, (2) a Revised Random Early Detection (RevRED) algorithm which has recently been developed and primarily based on the buffer management of TCP congestion control, and (3) a Fibonacci Pre-Increment Backoff (FPB) algorithm which waits for backoff time prior to retransmission. All the aforementioned algorithms were therefore implemented instead of the default CoAP mechanism. In this study, evaluations were carried out regarding the efficiency of the developed CoCo-RED using a Cooja simulator. The congestion control mechanism can quickly handle the changing behaviors of network communication, and thus it prevents the buffer overflow that leads to congestions. The results of our experiments indicate that CoCo-RED can control congestion more effectively than the default CoAP in every condition.
Author(s) Name:  Chanwit Suwannapong, Chatchai Khunboa
Journal name:  Sensors
Publisher name:  MDPI
Volume Information:  19(15), 3433;
Paper Link:   https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/19/15/3433