Research Area:  Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
In recent times, congestion in traffic is bit cost effective and several traffic management methods are utilized to balance the traffic as per the capacity of roads. However, many methods fails in pre-analyzing the network events to regulate the traffic flow. Also, the dynamic movement of vehicles fails in adapting the vehicle units to follow the changing topology. Hence, it is necessary for packet forwarding between source and destination nodes in a precise manner, where the packet loss and communication overhead should be in control. In this paper, we utilize the concept of Connected Dominating Set (CDS) approach in traffic management for reducing the flow of traffic streaming in main routes. The CDS approach dynamically adapts itself with the changing topology and acts as a virtual backbone to reduce traffic overhead. It restricts the increased flow of vehicles to the dominators, since traffic congestion in such areas increases. The CDS forwarding (CDSF) finds the dominating or high congestion routes and diverts the traffic to other areas based on the level of traffic in sub-routes. The CDSF method works on an assumption that edges on road segments has multiple vehicles, where it increases the network efficiency. However, we make careful consideration of choosing the other road segments to traverse the required packets from source to destination with reduced packet loss. The construction of a virtual backbone network with series of neighboring backbone nodes traverses efficiently the packets. Further, choosing vehicles with low velocity improves the probability of connectivity in a specific area and increases the network throughput. This improves the re-routing flexibility and makes the packets to reach the destination without traffic congestion in VANETs. The CDSF method and control strategies are tested in NS2 and SUMO simulator under different traffic conditions. The results of simulation show that CDSF traffic management system reduces significantly the traffic congestion and overall traffic cost that includes CDF, average latency, average end-to-end delay, Hop count, packet error rate, percentage delivery ratio, data delivery rate, throughput. The result shows that the proposed method 0.345 times improved packet delivery ratio, 0.35 times improved throughput and 0.7 times reduced delay than the existing methods. Further, the CDSF method controls the traffic density by reducing the maximum queue length and traffic controlling time.
Author(s) Name:  R. C. Karpagalakshmi,P. Vijayalakshmi,K. Gowsic,R. Rathi
Journal name:  Wireless Personal Communications
Publisher name:  Springer
Volume Information:  volume 119, pages 2725–2754 (2021)
Paper Link:   https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11277-021-08361-y